Tuesday, January 24, 2012

ব্রিটিশদের লুঠের রাজত্ব৩


রেলপথ থেকে লুঠ
রমেশ চন্দ্র দত্ত বলছেন ১৮৪৯ থেকে প্রত্যেক বছর বিনিয়োগের ওপর ৫ শতাংশ সুদ ধরে ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়ান রেলওয়েকে দেওয়া হয়, ১৮৪৯এ ৫,৬০২ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫০এ ১৭,৪৭১ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫১এ ৩৭,১৮৫ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫২তে ৪৫,২৩৪ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫৩তে ৫২,০৭১ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫৪তে ৮৮,৮৮৪ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫৫তে ১,৮৫,৭৩০ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫৬তে ২,৯৭,৩৯০ পাউন্ড, ১৮৫৭তে ৩,৫৪,৫১১ পাউন্ড, ১৮৪৮তে ৪,৩৩,৯৬৮ পাউন্ড মোট ১৫,২৮,০৪৬ পাউন্ড গ্রেট পেনিনসুলার রেলওয়েকে দিয়েছে, ৪৫৬০৪৯ পাউন্ড মাদ্রাজ রেলওয়েকে দেওয়া হয়, ২,৬০,৭৩৪ পাউন্ড রমেশ দত্ত বলছেন রেলপথ তৈরির ও পরিচালনা ব্যবসায় প্রত্যেক বছর ক্ষতির সম্মুখীন হতে হলেও যেহেতু সরকার নিজে সুদসহ বিনিয়েগের অর্থ ফেরতের নিশ্চিন্ততা দিচ্ছে, সেহেতু প্রত্যেক বছর নতুন নতুন কারবারি প্রবেশ করতে থাকে এবং ক্ষতির পরিমানও বাড়তে শুরু করে পাহাড় প্রমাণ ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানি গুটিয়ে যাওয়ার আগেই পাঞ্জাবে দ্য সিন্ধ রেলওয়ে কোম্পানি, বম্বে, বরোদা এন্ড সেন্ট্রাল ইন্ডিয়ান রেলওয়া কোম্পানি, দ্য ইস্টার্ন বেঙ্গল রেলওয়ে কোম্পানি, দ্য গ্রেট সাউথ অব ইন্ডিয়া রেলওয়ে কোম্পানি, দ্য ক্যালকাটা এন্ড সাউথ ইস্টার্ন রেলওয়ে কোম্পানি তৈরি হয়েগেল সরকারের নিশ্চিন্ততার উত্তরে, অথচ এর মধ্যে অনেক পথই তৈরি হল না
লেফটানেন্ট কর্নেল চেসনি ছিলেন অডিটর অব একাউন্টস ছ বছর ধরে, পরে তিনি কুপার্স হিল ইঞ্জিনিয়ারিং কলেজের প্রেসিডেন্ট হয়ে যান, তিনি বলেন " Railways  began in India in the year I 848, when the first staff of engineers were sent out; and I need hardly say that in those days engineers in England were not accustomed to make economy their first consideration. These gentlemen were sent out to make the railways, and there was a kind of understanding that they were not to'be controlled very closely. . . . Then, too, the system of audit was extremely imperfect; it was what is called technically a post audit-nothing was known of the money expended till the accounts were rendered. The result of the system was that on one railway, the East India Railway, four millions sterling out of twenty millions had been disallowed from the capital account. The only thing to be done, however, under those circumstances, was to allow it, and bring it all into the capital account again, because, under the contract as it was worded, it was quite impossible to disallow it finally, and it was quite understood that whatever was spent must be eventually passed.
লরেন্স আর মেয়োর সময়কালের অর্থ মন্ত্রী উইলিয়ম এন মেসি বলছেন,  The East India Company cost far more, if not twice as much, as it ought to have cost ; enormous sums wcrc lavished, and the corltractors had no motive whatever for econorny. A11 the money came from the English capitalist, and so long as he was guaranteed 5 per cent. on the revenues of India, it was immaterial to him whether the funds that he lent were thrown into the Hooghly or converted into brick and mortar. The result was these large sums were expended, and that the East India Railway cost, I think (I speak without book), about 30,000 pond a mile . . . . I t seems to me that they are the most extravagant works that were ever undertaken.
ভারতের ভাইসরয় স্যর জন লরেন্স বলছেন, "I think it is notorious in India among almost every class that ever heard talk on the subject, that the railways have been extravagantly made; that they have cost a great deal more than they are worth, or ought to have cost. With a guarantee of 5 per cent., capitalists will agree to anything ; they do not care really very much whether it succeeds or fails; 5 per cent. is such a good rate of interest that they are content to get that, and not really look after what is done. Hence one of the reasons why the cost of the railways has been rnore than it ought to have been. The Natives in my tirne, (and I see little difference to this day in spite of all the attempts of the Directors of the Companies to improve the system), greatly complained of their treatment on the railways ; and I myself believe that though it is difficult to prevent abuse of power under such circumstances, yet the Government could be more effective in that respect than the Co~npanies. . . . The Natives complained very much in this respect ; and on inquiry that I used to make in India, both official and private, I was confirmed in the view that these statements of the Natives were to a considerable extent true."
জেনারেল স্ট্রেচিকে ভারতে রেলদপ্তরের পারচেজএর দায়িত্বে পাঠানো হয়, তিনি বলছেন, There is no doubt that that is the unfortunate result of having a Despotic Government, managed in the sort of way that the Government of India is and, for myself, I do not exactly see that there is any remedy for it.
আগস্ট ১৬, ১৮৭৬এর মিনিটে লর্ড লরেন্স রেলদপ্তরের কাজে ভারতের জনগণের কত ক্ষতি হয়েছে তা বর্ণনা করেছেন "It is estimated that while the Companies will have to supply 81 millions for the railways now under construc tion, the Government contribution will be 7.5 millions for land, loss by exchange, and supervision; 144 millions for interest paid in excess of nett revenues; and 4.5 millions in interest paid on those payments of guaranteed interest.
The main system of Indian railways is nearly completed the State Railways, which are now under construction or proposed, will, for the most part, supplement the existing trunk lines. There are now open in India 5872 miles of railway which have cost about £97,ooo,ooo, giving an average expenditure of £16,536 per mile. . . . As no more lines will be entrusted to Companies, all railway construction will eventually be in the hands of the Government. Lines are now open from Calcutta to Multan and Bombay, and from Bombay to Madras. The completion of the latter line was effected on the 1st of May 1871, on which day the Great Indian Peninsula [railway] joined that from Madras.
The whole amount of guaranteed capital which has been raised to the grst March last was £94,725,ooo, of which £92,417,000 had been expended. The sum expended direct by the Government amounted to £5,398,000, making a total expenditure of upwards of a hundred million pounds sterling.
But the railways are now almost completed, so that, with the cessation of heavy outlay on construction, the financial position may be expected to improve." 
সেচ বিশেষজ্ঞ আর্থার কটন বলেন "My great point is this, that what India wants is water carriage ; that the railways have completely failed ; they cannot carry at the price required ; they cannot carry the quantities; and they cost the country three millions a year, and increasing, to support them. That steamboat canals would not have cost more than one-eighth that of the railways ; would carry any quantities at nominal prices and at any speed; would require no support from the Treasury; and would be combined with irrigation."(রমেশ চন্দ্র দত্ত)
১৮৭০ থেকে ৮০ পর্যন্ত প্রত্যেক বছরে সরকারের রেলপথ আর সেচব্যবস্থার সরাসরি তুলনা করছেন রমে চন্দ্র দত্ত মশাই
বছর পর্যন্ত খরচ                     সরকারি রেলপথে     সেচ ব্যবস্থায়
১৮৭০                            ৭৪৩৮৬২          ২৬৯৫৪৫৬
১৮৭১                            ৪৪৯৩৭২          ৭১৮৪৩৮
১৮৭২                            ৬৪৪৬২০          ৯৮৩৮৫৪
১৮৭৩                            ১৪১৩৬৪৯         ৭৭০৯২০
১৮৭৪                            ২৩৫৪৬২৫         ১১৯৮৬৮২
১৮৭৫                            ৩০১৪১৮০         ১২৩৫৫৯১
১৮৭৬                            ৩১৬৫১৮৪         ১১০৫৪৪৫
১৮৭৭                            ২৮৬৫৮৬১        ৯৪৩৪২৩
১৮৭৮                            ৩৯৮৪৯৬৮        ৮০৬০৮৪
১৮৭৯                            ৩৩২৭৮৮৮        ৭৯৪৬৩৫
১৮৮০                           ২৬৮০৪৯৩         ৫৯৮৮৩৭
মোট ব্যয়                          ২,৪৬,৪৪,৭০২       ১,১৮,৫১,১৯৩
এর পর আর্থার কটনের দাবি অনুযায়ী ২২ জানুয়ারি ১৮৭৮এ একটি পার্লামেন্টারি কমিটি তৈরি হল লর্ড হ্যামিলটনকে চেয়ারম্যান করে. সেখানে কটন বললেন, The Railway account now stands thus :-Cost of works  £112,000,000, Cost of land 8,000,000 Debt now , 50,000,000 Total £170,000,ooo, for which we have about 7500 miles, or at the rate of £23,ooo per mile. At the present cost to the Treasury in interest on share capital 4.5 millions, and on land and debt at 4 per cent., 3 millions ; total, 7.5 millions. From which, deducting nett receipts, 44 millions, leaves three millions a year as the loss on the money sunk."
" The capital spent on the water-works, including the Toombhadra, is £ I 6,000,000. The accumulation of interest against the Bari Doab, the Ganges, and other canals, are much more than balanced by those to credit on the Kaveri, Krishna, and Godavari works, which have at least 10 millions to their credit, leaving a balance in their favour of 5 millions. So that the money sunk may be taken at £11,000,000, the interest of which at 4 per cent. is half a million, against which we have a nett profit over working expenses of about a million, leaving a nett gain to the Treaszvry of half a million a year on irrigation works.
তাঁর বক্তব্যে তিনি সব থেকে বড় কথাটি বললেন,  I am afraid we must reckon that out of the 40 millions alkcted by the famine in Madras, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Bombay, 4 or 5 millions have perished, after spending 120 millions on railways besides incurring a debt of 50 millions sterling, and railways did not provide food for man and beast; did not carry the whole traffic of the country ; did not carry it cheaply enough ; did not pay interest on cost and debt ; did not drain the country, and did not provide drinking water for the people. All this was and could be done by irrigation works.
অথচ পণ্য পরিবহনে বরাবরের জন্য কেন জলপথকে উপেক্ষা করা হল, কমিটি কটনকে প্রশ্নটি করলে দৃপ্তস্বরে কটন উত্তরদিলেন, because it would stultify the railways, that is the sole point. Only think of a canal by the side of the Eastern Bengal Railway which carries some 200,000 tons, and a canal by the side of it carrying 2,000,ooo tons, and swarming with passengers and goods. What a terrible affront to the railway that must be(www.scribd.com/doc/4596223/EconomicHisIndia2-Romesh-Dutt-1903).
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