Sunday, December 30, 2012

Kol rebellion of Chota Nagpur, 1831-1832

he Kols (aka Ho/Larka) inhabited a large portion of the Chota Nagpur region. They rebelled to resist British entry into their dominion. Soon they joined the Munda rebellion.
It was only in the middle of 19th century that the Kols and the Mundas were finally defeated. In 1820 the Raja of Singhbum acknowledged the supremacy of the British. The restless Kol tribes, however, resented the agreement and broke into a rebellion in 1831-1832. They were joined by the Munda tribe. The immediate cause of the Kol uprising was the oppression of the local tribes by the non-adivasi thikadars (contractors) or farmers of rented lands. The Kols, the Mundas, the Santhals and the Oraons joined and burnt the houses of many diku (outsider) landlords and killed many of them. The British suppressed the rebellion with great effort. A register of all tribal land was completed in 1862. It was in favour of the landlords than the adivasis. The Adivasi kols of Chotonagpur area was divided into many subcastes. They lived independently there. (1) In 1820 the king of Porhat accepted the British governance and settled to give a huge tax to the British Government. After that he demanded the surrounding area as his realm. The British Government accepted his demand. The problem arose when he went collect the revenue from the Ho. They killed the retainers or servants of the king. After that the Kols dressed with bow and arrow, the jabbing etc. came to a fight with the English. They fought till the death and hindered the English a lot; but at last the wood-word Kol had to surrender in 1821. (2) In 1831 the Kols rebelled again. In that part of Chotonagpur area the 'Ijara' was given to Hindu, Muslim, Shikh Mahajans. They exceeded the limit of oppression. In protection of the oppression Buddhu Bhagat, Joya Bhagat, Jhindrai Manaki and Sui Munda amassed the Kols. In 1831 Munda and Oraon cultivators broked their first rebel in Ranchi district. The rebel immediately spread to Singbhum, Manbhum, Hajaribag and Palamu districts. All the men like Jamindar, Jotdar (one kind of Jamindar), Businessman, Mohajon (who lends money to the farmers for interest), English Servant except Adivasi came under the aegis of this rebel. The rebel was taken into control after the continuous effort of two years and killing a thousands of innocent children, woman and man.
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